A Promising (and Eye-Opening) Start to the Estate Sale Season in CT

Notwithstanding the unseasonably cold temperatures here in New England (at this writing in late March, highs expected in the 30sF), there are signs of spring. For one, there’s been a sudden spike in the number of listings for estate sales, which warms the hearts of vintage lovers and flea market scavengers like me. It’s the time of year when people start clearing out their attics and closets in preparation for a move or to wrestle control over their growing piles of stuff. There are always plenty of other people who feel they don’t have enough stuff and will swoop in to take it off their hands. Going to estate and yard sales make you appreciate the wisdom of  the old saying, ‘one man’s trash is another man’s treasure.’ I see this dynamic playing out all the time and heartily approve of it as a form of recycling.

Last weekend I mapped out several sales I wanted to check out on Friday and Saturday and they ran the gamut in terms of appeal. I live in Connecticut in a region dotted with quaint villages and incredibly scenic landscapes. Town welcome signs proudly proclaim their establishment in the 1600s and, after driving through a string of these, I start to think of those founded later, say the 1800s, as modern upstarts. On a typical drive, I pass by impossibly idyllic farmsteads bordered by stacked stone walls and white picket fences, with cows grazing happily in the pastures. As I follow the turns to the next sale dictated by Google Maps, I’m expected to drive up to a sprawling estate with lots of treasures inside.

However, there’s another side to country living and it isn’t as pretty. I looked around confusedly when the familiar Google Maps voice said, “You’ve arrived,” then noticed a small single-lane street with a few cars positioned along the edge. I parked a short distance away and walked toward a “house” where a few people were coming and going. It was really more of a shack with a few steps leading up to a one-room affair. Inside, stuff was piled and thrown everywhere and some people were picking through the dirt and grime in hope of finding something precious or valuable. One older woman lifted a colored glass bottle in the air, effusing, “My mother used to have all sorts of these but she threw them out” (for good reason I expect).  I’m all for scavenging but I draw the line at the risk of contracting airborne diseases or coming upon dead rodents in my search. It was the sort of place that should be wrapped in warning tape and condemned by the health department. Yet, the woman running the sale noted happily that she would be there all week bringing in more stuff from some unknown nearby stash. My husband doesn’t usually come with me to these sales but he happened to this time and I found him standing outside with his arms folded and a stern look on his face that said, “what are we doing here?” Needless to say, we left empty handed.

Happily, very few sales turn out that way. Most are located in longtime family homes that are being cleared out by relatives or estate sale pros. That’s not to say they are lavish estates. In fact, they are often modest looking bungalows or split levels but they’re stuffed with interesting treasures that the owners have accumulated over time. One sale was at a midcentury-style split level, the home of a recently deceased elderly couple who were enthusiastic collectors of southwest-style and Native American art. Another was at a lovely two-story colonial filled with nostalgic pieces from the early to mid 1900s. The owners were involved in the dairy industry and had these wonderful old wooden milk crates (which I didn’t buy because of the price, but will probably regret). I also passed on an antique sewing machine and a beautiful ceramic stove/oven with warming cabinets (too big). But I found some great old books, jewelry, and purses.

Below are some my finds from these particular outings (photos link to listings in my Etsy shop). All in all, a satisfying (and edifying) first couple of weeks of estate sale hunting!

luxart library classics
I love these miniature classics from the 1920s by Little Luxart Library. They’re part of a bigger set but I like the titles I found, including: Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson; Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream; The Ancient Mariner by Coleridge; Speeches and Letters by George Washington; and Barrack-Room Ballads by Rudyard Kipling.

andersen studio ceramics
A set of ceramic stoneware vases by Andersen Design Studio, founded by the late Weston and Brenda Andersen in 1952, in Boothbay, Maine.
Continuing my fascination with vintage cameras, I picked up some Kodak Brownies. The Baby Brownie, which already sold (pictured above), was so cute. And I’m amazed at the condition of this No. 2 box camera from the 1910s.
Antique gold-filled wire rim spectacles made by American Optical in the 1930s.
A lovely Florentine leather compact from the 1950s, in pristine condition!
A 1960s hand-tooled leather cigarette case with the Aztec calendar etched on the back.

 

 

 

My Latest Vintage Obsession: Midcentury Cameras

Early to midcentury cameras are popular now, both among practitioners of old-fashioned film photography and vintage collectors looking to create attractive displays. Many come with matching leather cases and straps and other accessories that add to their vintage appeal. I’ve picked up a few these cameras at estate sales lately and have been learning a bit about their history and features in order to list them in my Etsy shop.

Although I dabble in photography, I am by no means experienced in using old cameras or well-versed on their technical features. However, I did start my journalism career back in the days when young reporters often took their own photos with actual film. I never set out on an assignment without a fully stocked camera bag, which came to seem like my de facto purse. I wish I still had the Pentax 35mm I carried back then but alas I seem to have given it away during one of our many moves, not anticipating that they would come back into fashion.

Anyway, here are a few of my favorite camera finds of late. I absolutely love the worn-in leather of the cases and straps!

Genos Rapid. The Genos Rapid is a German box camera introduced in 1950 that was made of Bakelite. Box cameras did not have all the bells and whistles of more technologically sophisticated cameras but their simplicity was a big part of their appeal for the general public and inspired many people to try their hand at photography. The earliest box cameras were made of wood or metal and allowed no control over focus, aperture, or shutter speed. The Genos Rapid offered a few more frills, such as a shutter button, a flash sync socket, and switches that allow you to choose aperture settings. For these reasons, the Genos is still popular among serious collectors who actually use the cameras they buy. However, it’s boxy appearance also gives it a very appealing vintage look. This one also came with its original leather case and sold quite quickly. I’m now on the lookout for more!

vintage camera
Vintage 1950s Genos Rapid Camera, with and without its leather case.

 

 

Argus C3. This lovely looking camera was introduced in 1957 and was nicknamed the “brick” for its boxy shape and solid construction. Rick Schuster, who writes about photography at Shot on Film, says the Argus C3 is “beautiful in its weirdness,” with strange design features involving dials, knobs, and lens stuck to the outside. However, it was a best-selling camera in its day and all the exterior gadgets were sometimes a selling point, making it seem more legit from a technical standpoint. It was also reasonably priced compared with other 35mm cameras. I love this one that I found at an estate sale because it was obviously so well cared for by its owner, who–judging by all the framed photographs and art books on display throughout the home–was an avid and skilled photographer. It also came with a very nice case in near-mind condition, as you can see in the photos below.

vintage camera
An Argus C3 Standard Rangefinder camera with original brown leather case and strap.

Voigtlander Vitomatic I. This model was made in Germany from 1957-60 by Voigtlander, a very old and established company that was founded in 1756. The first generation of Vitomatics were viewfinders as opposed to the rangefinder models that followed later. Made entirely of metal and glass, this camera is quite compact and extremely sturdy. A cool feature noted on the photography site, Lomography: the Vitomatic I never needs a battery because the selenium meter absorbs power from the light in front if it.  As for the technical details, this camera has a Prontor-SLK shutter and a color Skopar lens 2.8/50. It comes in it’s original leather case, although the strap is missing and there are a few scuffs on the leather–but I really like the worn-in look.

vintage camera
The Vitomatic I, a viewfinder camera produced in Germany in the late 1950s.
vintage camera
A few scuffs on the case gives it a vintage look.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voigtlander Prominent. Voigtlander is a stalwart in the camera world and the company was known for its quality construction and technological innovations. It was the first to introduce a zoom lens and built-in flash units for 35mm cameras. The Prominent, a 35mm rangefinder, is among it’s top achievements but was probably been ahead of it’s time, according to CameraPedia, which notes that it wasn’t as popular as some of it’s competitors, such as Leica and Contax, when it came out in 1950. The Prominent was the most “intelligent” of the top German cameras but it’s quirky design made it less attractive to casual photographers. “The public was not ready for such a product,” says CameraPedia, “It needed some knowledge of optics. Today we can state that its basic design is still ahead of general top products.” Desirable features of this model include its Synchro-Compur shutter and Ultron 1:2/50 lens. This particular camera, which I purchased from the estate of an avid photographer, also includes a vintage metal film canister and cylindrical leather case. The case attaches to the leather strap, giving the photographer easy access to film while out on a shoot. Plus, it looks really cool!

vintage camera
The Voigtlander Prominent was technologically advanced for its time and quite collectible today.
vintage film canister
I love the metal film canister and case that came with this camera!
vintage camera
The Prominent has a Synchro-Compur shutter and Ultron 1:2/50 lens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agfa Super Solina. This 35mm rangefinder camera by Agfa was made in Germany in the early 1960s. The Super Solina, also sold as the Super Silette, is part of Agfa’s Silette series that started in 1955. It has a flat top plate, a recessed rewind knob flush with the top, a top flash attachment plate, and a Prontor-SVS shutter. This camera comes with a nice weathered leather case that is missing it’s strap. Agfa is another well-known name in photography. The company’s roots extend back to mid-19th century Germany, when it produced it’s first box camera in 1930 and its first 35mm in 1937. The Silette series introduced more modern design elements, including  an autoexposure button and capability for 126mm film. It produced it’s last film cameras in the early 1980s and gave up production in 1983.

vintage camera
The Agfa Super Solina was part of the company’s Silette series.
vintage agfa camera
Comes with a leather case (sans strap).

Fun Ideas for Creating Vintage Shelf Displays

I love seeing how people use antiques to create cool vintage displays in their homes. Possessions that have outlived their original purpose or been replaced by modern materials and sleeker designs–such as wooden printer trays or midcentury suitcases–are being repurposed as vintage decor to wonderful effect. Nostalgic items like vintage cameras and old kitchen utensils are being called back into service as art. I love the idea of upcycling these treasures, which might otherwise be relegated to a dusty storage space or thrown away.

The wooden printer tray is something that I’ve used in my own home. We found one at my mother-in-law’s house years ago and she gave it to my youngest son–a toddler at the time–to use in his room. Over the years, he’s filled up the odd-shaped compartments with tiny art objects found during family trips or at flea markets. Now 17, he still displays it on his wall and it’s like a snapshot of experiences and interests that he’s had over the years. Maybe someday he’ll pass it along to his own children.

vintage decor
A few of the tiny collectibles in my son’s printer’s tray display.

 

vintage shelf display
Another vintage display created with an old printer’s tray, featured on the blog Building 25.

Other Display Ideas

Vintage cameras have become very collectible in recent years. Some are used as working cameras by photography enthusiasts while others are purchased solely for display. A variety of attractive mid-century models can be had for between $25-$50 on Etsy, although they can range up to several hundred dollars depending on the style, manufacturer, and condition. Some come with weathered leather cases which really adds to their vintage appeal.

Vintage cameras can be integrated into an eclectic display or arranged as a collection of various makers and styles.

vintage cameras
Vintage Kodak and Agfa cameras listed recently in my Etsy shop.

 

Vintage camera display
A display of vintage cameras, found on Pinterest.
Vintage camera display
Great idea for organizing a vintage camera collection. Found on PetaPixel.

Old suitcases are also highly desirable as decor these days. Stack them or turn them into makeshift side tables or be really creative and use them as shelves, as one Etsy shop owner demonstrates below. Other ideas for cool vintage shelf displays include:

  • Classic hardcover books. You can pick these up cheaply at your local library’s used book sale (and support your library and the same time).
  • Antique mirrors and picture frames.
  • Old kitchen utensils, such as cutting boards, standalone graters, wooden spoons, pitchers, and food scales.
  • Vintage pottery pieces
  • Antique or colored glassware
  • Vintage Jewelry
  • Old black and white photos

Below are some fun ideas that I found around the web. Hope they provide some inspiration for your own vintage decorating!

vintage suitcases
Vintage suitcases made into shelves. Sold by Vintage Baubles n Bits on Etsy.
Antique dresser mirrors are perfect for displaying vintage jewelry collections.
Some vintage watches from my Etsy shop.
vintage shelf display
A vintage shelf display featuring antique scales, cutting boards and other kitchen tools. Found on Remodelalcoholic.
A pretty jewelry display created with vintage glass bottles, from the blog Something Created Everyday.

1950s Fashion: Decade of the Plastic Handbag

The Lucite Craze: Geometric Gems

The Lucite handbag is one of the most iconic fashion accessories of the 1950s. Collectors Weekly describes them as “geometric gems” that looked like “portable jewel boxes turned inside out.” The cylindrical or box-shaped purses came in a variety of colors and inventive designs. Some, for example, doubled as compacts or jewel boxes. Many were adorned with glitter, rhinestones, or elaborate carvings.

The Lucite bag fell out of popular favor in the 1960s, along with the introduction of vinyl, a more versatile and cheaper alternative. Little did the designers of the day suspect that the “fad” was far from over! Following is a brief overview of some of the most famous designers of the popular and enduring Lucite bag.

 Wilardy Originals began in New York in 1946, the brainchild of Charles William Hardy and his son William Hammond Hardy. Charles was a mathematics wiz and a crack businessman, according to his grandson, Billy Hardy, while William was the artistic visionary. Will ran the business from the 1960s to the 1980s, during which time he designed his now-famous Lucite handbags.

Vintage Handbags
Vanity purses laminated with colored or gold glitter, such as these examples from Wilardy, were popular throughout the 1950s.

Vanity purses laminated with colored or gold glitter, such as these examples from Wilardy, were popular throughout the 1950s. (CollectorsWeekly).

It’s interesting to hear Billy’s story of w hat it was like growing up in this entrepreneurial and artistic family. Following is an excerpt from “Wilardy History” on Wilardy Original’s web site:

 “My father’s concept of “summer camp” was to bring me to the factory and show me how the business was run. The din of the factory was something to be experienced: the whine of the table saws and routers reducing raw material from large sheets into smaller parts; the gasp of vacuum pumps shaping heated plastic into various shapes; the clack of various hydraulic presses stamping out parts; the treadmill-like churning of huge sanding belts being sprayed and lubricated with water; the gentle rhythmic ticking of the riveters attaching hinges, clasps, and handles; and the lapping of the wheels of buffing machines, as every scratch was slowly removed to produce the finished product. The smell of the glues and solvents used to fuse together the plastic joints, the gassing off of the plastics from the friction of cutting tools, and even the tape used to box and ship the product added to the experience.”

1950s Handbags by Willardy Originals (from the company's website).
1950s Handbags by Wilardy Originals (from the company’s website).

Billy Hardy didn’t see his friends’ mothers with these purses and couldn’t understand where all the interest was coming from. But he soon realized they were something special:

“What I didn’t realize was that these were very exclusive items costing plenty at the time. These lucite purses were being sold in Hollywood, Miami, Paris, London, and Fifth Avenue in New York.”

 

Vintage handbags
Will’s Brother-in-law with a Wilardy Original purse display.
vintage handbags
A Wilardy accordian style bag.

Other Famous Makers 

Llewellyn. Llewellyn Bley made elaborately styled handbags that commanded high prices in the 1950s, despite being made of plastic, says Collectors Weekly. Llewellyn known for his innovative designs in Art Deco and Art Nouveau styles. One of his most famous creations was the Beehive, which featured three brass bees on its lid. Llewellyn was a master of making hard plastic appear soft, with sides that appear to be pleated or fanned. The Conestoga Wagon purse, for example, looks like a duffle bag with twisted handles.

Llewellyn was known for its carved Lucite bags, as well as ones like this one made from shell, a hard plastic material composed of cellulose acetate. (Source: CollectorsWeekly).
Llewellyn was known for its carved Lucite bags, as well as ones like this one made from shell, a hard plastic material composed of cellulose acetate. (Source: CollectorsWeekly)

Charles S. Kahn. This Florida designer produced bags in shapes of hat boxes, barrels, drums, and cylinders in a variety of bright, flashy colors and finishes. According to a feature on vintage bags in a 2007 issue of Country Living, plastic handbags designed by Kahn are often identifiable by a distinctive clasp featuring three metal balls and a paper label placed inside the purse below the hinge of the lid. Plastic purses in bright colors like red, aqua, emerald green, and pink are among the most rare and valuable for collectors, according to the article. Design, color, trim, and condition are the most important factors to consider because cracks, crazing, or warping cannot be repaired.

Charles Kahn purse
A Charles H. Kahn purse that was featured in Country Living. It was valued at approx. $900 back in 2007 when the article was written.

Myles Originals, by Artistic Display Company, was the first lucite bag maker in Miami, according to brief history by Bag Lady University, and were popular among affluent resort vacationers to Florida after WWII. The company introduced a composite material called Lamoplex–sheets of plastic with materials like metal strips laminated between–to create a crushed-crayons effect.

myles original bag
A Myles Originals “sports bag” with Lamoplex top and removable compact inside (from Bag Lady University.)
From Bag Lady University: This bag in black and gray is illustrated on page 22 of "Plastic Handbags: Sculpture to Wear," by Kate Dooner. A green example sold online for $178 in 2005.
From Bag Lady University: This bag in black and gray is illustrated on page 22 of “Plastic Handbags: Sculpture to Wear,” by Kate Dooner. A green example sold online for $178 in 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Resources

Looking for more details on vintage bags? Here are some websites that I’ve found helpful:

Wilardy Originals. The web site for the 1950s designer of Lucite handbags features vintage photos, catalogs, and a history of the company.

Guides from Yoogi’s Closet, luxury goods reseller.

PurseBlog: An active blog with links to guides on buying new and vintage designer bags.

The Hermes Birkin Authenticity Guide: 5 Tips to ensure the Birkin You’re Buying is real.

Plastic Handbags: Sculpture to Wear, by Kate E. Dooner. Beautiful photos of over 300 classic plastic handbags. Available on Amazon.

Bag Lady University: A companion site to the vintage bag seller, Bag Lady Emporium, that features great information on the makers and history of vintage bags and jewelry.

Famous Vintage Handbag Styles from the 1930s-1990s

A Brief Survey of Famous Designer Bags from the 1930s – 1990s

While there are a great many vintage bags—with and without attached brand names—a few have attained almost mythical status over the years. Typically, a bag might become wildly popular after catching the eye of a celebrity who made it part of her signature look. Some bags had fleeting popularity when introduced then faded out of view, only to reemerge years later on a wave of nostalgia.

For this post, I’ve picked out some famous designer bags starting in the 1930s and extending into the 1990s. This is by no means an exhaustive list, but these beauties will be familiar to anyone with even a passing interest in vintage fashion. Many of them are now coveted collectibles that fetch astronomical prices, if you can find them at all.

The 1930s

 The Alma. Named after the Alma bridge over the river Seine, this domed satchel by Louis Vuitton was introduced in 1934 and reflected the Art Deco style of the time. The bag is distinctive for its structured design, long zipper extending over the entire arc of the purse, and rigid handles. Jackie Onassis and Audrey Hepburn—icons of sophistication—were big fans.

vintage Louis Vuitton bag
The most structured of the iconic Louis Vuitton handbags, the Alma was originally designed in the 1930s by Gaston-Louis Vuitton. (photo from Louis Vuitton)

Vuitton also introduced its Speedy Bag during this decade, a structured bag with cowhide leather handles and logo canvas.

Vintage Louis Vuitton bag
The Speedy Bag, shown here in a modern pink version, was originally designed for travelers in 1930, according to Louis Vuitton‘s website.The post-WWII years signaled a return to better economic times, fueling the rise of designer luxury handbags.

The 1940s and 1950s

The Gucci Bamboo Bag. Although this bag is now considered the height of luxury, it was designed with value in mind. European countries were rationing resources after the end of World War II so Gucci artisans began experimenting with bamboo imported from Japan, according to PurseBlog. The bamboo was heated and bent to form the handles. Once attached to the bag and cooled, the wood retained its shape.

Gucci Bamboo Bag 1960s
Bamboo handled bags became an instant hit after WWII and continued to be popular into the 1960s. (Photo from Purse Blog).

The Kelly Bag. This classic bag made by Hermes was named for movie star Grace Kelly, who used it in the 1954 Alfred Hitchcock film “To Catch a Thief.” It is shaped like a trapezoid and made of leather, with ballasts and clasps made of white or yellow gold. Each bag is crafted individually and takes about 25 hours to make.

Grace Kelly may have been rich and famous but she appreciated a good value and probably would have been a fan of vintage purses if she was alive today. Signs of wear and tear on her original Kelly handbag suggest that she carried the same one for many years, according to an article in The Guardian.

Grace Kelly with her Hermes Kelly bag
The Kelly bag became part of fashion history in 1956 when Grace Kelly attempted to protect her pregnant stomach from paparazzi photographers. (Photo from MyLuciousLife.com)

The 2.55 Flap Bag. Introduced in 1955 by Coco Chanel, the flap bag features a double flap with a mademoiselle closure and metal chain. According to Eugenia (Yoogi) and Simon Han, co-founders of Yoogiscloset, which resells vintage luxury goods, Coco wanted a bag that could be easily flung over the shoulder or arm so she could keep her hands free.

Variations to the original Flap Bag over the years include leather interwoven through the chain, use of different leathers and fabrics, and a single instead of a double flap.

Black Chanel Flap Bag
Chanel Classic Flap Bag (photo from Yoogi’s Closet)

The Jackie Bag by Gucci. As its name implies, this timeless bag was created for Jackie Kennedy Onassis. Genuine bags have the signature Gucci piston clasp and are handmade in Italy.

Vintage Gucci bag
The Jackie Bag is displayed in the Gucci museum in Florence, along with the horse bit, the bamboo handle and the double-G logo, according to Designer Vintage. Gucci designed the bag in the fifties and initially named it the Fifties Constance.

The 1970s

The Coach Willis bag. This was Coach’s best-selling handbag and the first to incorporate its signature dowel frame, according to Glamour.

Vintage Coach bag Willis
The classic Coach Willis bag.

The 1980s

Birkin Bag. Introduced in 1984, the Birkin bag was named for actress Jane Birkin and has become a symbol of wealth, class and fashion, according to BragMyBag. It is carefully handcrafted of genuine calf, crocodile, ostrich, or lizard leather and each bag is handmade individually.

The bag has a famous back story, according to Purseblog. Hermes CEO Pierre Louis Dumas was sitting next to Jane Birkin on a plane in 1981 and saw she was struggling with her carry-on luggage and complaining about the lack of suitable leather handbags for traveling. The encounter inspired Dumas to start working on a leather bag that would combine fashion with function.

Customers who can afford a Kelly or Birkin bag often wait a year or more for them to be individually handcrafted by Parisian artisans. And it isn’t exactly clear whether you can simply purchase one or whether you need to be a celebrity or have some special in with the folks at Hermes. Today, Birkins sell for upwards of $10,000.

The 1990s

The Lady Dior Bag. Like the Kelly bag, this purse was named for royalty, says PurseBlog. The bag was presented to Princess Diana in 1995 by French First Lady Bernadette Chirac. Diana carried it so after that that it was dubbed Lady Dior in her honor.

Christian-Dior-Lady-Dior-Bag-Feature
A modern take on the Lady Dior bag. (photo from Purse Blog)

The Baguette Bag. This bag was introduced by Fendi in the late 1990s and was often featured on the TV show “Sex and the City.” Designed by Silvia Venturini, the bag was made to fit under the arm like a loaf of bread. The bags have been made from many materials, from denim, to pony skin, to crocodile, notes The Richest blog.

P00062336-BAGUETTE-PATENT-LEATHER-SHOULDER-BAG-DETAIL_2
The Fendi Baguette, designed in 1997 by Silvia Venturini. (Photo from The Richest)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I’ve never come across one of these storied bags in real life but I do love searching for stylish vintage purses. Here are a few of my favorite finds (photos link to listings on Etsy):

1950s handbag
A 1950s top handle beaded handbag made by Walborg. $50.
1950s handbag
A Kelly-style1950s top handle bag with matching coin purse made by Dorian.
1940s handbag
A 1940s black silk bag made by Ingbar. Vintage brooch and earrings by Trifari.
1950s handbag
A 1950s silk bag with matching coin purse by Morris Moskowitz. (to be listed soon).

Vintage Purse Guide: Evening Bags and Clutches

Clutches, evening bags, box purses and more! Before World War I, most women didn’t carry any sort of handbag or purse. However, as the century progressed, fashion evolved to suit their changing habits and lifestyles. Young women were getting away from wearing the long, full, ample-pocketed skirts and dresses that their mothers and grandmothers wore, and turning toward styles more suitable for … Read more

5 Secrets to Audrey Hepburn’s and Grace Kelly’s Vintage Style

grace kelly

Few of us can be as stylish as 1950s celebrities Grace Kelly and Audrey Hepburn but we can all add some vintage style to our look. Here are 5 tips to creating your own vintage style. “Vintage” is sometimes equated with “old” but what it really conveys is lasting quality–that’s what I think of when … Read more